Coffee’s success in Europe's rapidly growing cities resulted from the growing resentment against the effects of wines and beer. In England, Italy, France and Holland the coffee house became an immediate threat to the saloons and bars. A gentleman, without fear of intoxication, could slake his thirst and fulfill his need for social and intellectual interaction. The stimulation of coffee would not carry him beyond the confines of good taste.
By 1690, the coffee house was an institution in London and the beverage was sold all over the city. Opposition to the coffee house came from the tavern keepers who saw a quick decline to the liquor trade in the burgeoning competition of coffee. But the forces of temperance prospered and by 1715 there were more than 2,000 London coffee houses catering to every class of society. London consumed more coffee than any other city in the world.